Professional authors – Za4etka http://za4etka.com/ Mon, 09 May 2022 23:35:00 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.9.3 https://za4etka.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/05/cropped-icon-32x32.png Professional authors – Za4etka http://za4etka.com/ 32 32 Narcissistic and sadistic investigators are more likely to ask puzzles https://za4etka.com/2022/05/09/narcissistic-and-sadistic-investigators-are-more-likely-to-ask-puzzles/ Mon, 09 May 2022 23:35:00 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/05/09/narcissistic-and-sadistic-investigators-are-more-likely-to-ask-puzzles/

“Our research suggests that people who score high on measures of narcissism and sadism are more likely to choose to use these types of questions. The common factor here is a general lack of empathy.

“Narcissist, sadistic, socially inept”

This finding is based on a 2018 study co-authored by Professor Highhouse that looked at the types of people who liked to ask job candidates brain teasers. The study builds on previous research that found that puzzles produced anxiety in test takers and were often used to test a test taker’s ability to handle stress.

The study, Dark motives and optional use of puzzle interview questions, asked 736 employed adults to select their preferred options from a list of traditional interview questions (“Are you a good listener?”), behavioral (“Tell me about a time you failed “) or puzzle (like McKinsey’s example). About half of the participants had conducted at least one job interview during their career.

The researchers then asked the participants to take personality tests and, after controlling for interview experience and gender, found that “narcissism and sadism were significant predictors of the perceived relevance of the questions. brain teaser”.

“People who would consider using brain teaser interview questions when hiring someone are more narcissistic, more sadistic, less socially competent, and more strongly believe in the power of intuition in the interview process. hiring,” the study showed.

Professor Highhouse and his fellow researchers have recommended that employers limit interviewers’ ability to use brain teasers.

“Based on the results presented here, it appears that insensitive interviewers who lack the ability to step back will be more likely to use inappropriate or offensive hiring tactics,” they said.

BCG and McKinsey deny using puzzles

BCG and McKinsey said they did not ask potential recruits for brain teasers during job interviews, spokespersons for the two companies said.

“We don’t use puzzles in our interview process. Our interviews contain case studies designed to see how candidates define and structure a problem, break it down into solvable parts, prioritize critical aspects, and then design analyzes to arrive at a solution,” the BCG spokesperson said.

“A question relating to the value of the ocean as a resource was posed as part of an interview case study based on a pro bono project that BCG undertook with WWF in 2015.

“We have shown that more than two-thirds of the ‘value’ of the ocean depends on maintaining ocean health and that the marine economy that sustains the world’s livelihoods is under threat. At the time of the study, the economic value of the ocean was over $24 trillion.

The McKinsey spokesperson said: ‘Puzzles and ‘weird’ personality questions are not part of our recruitment process for a number of reasons, primarily because they are not predictive.

McKinsey uses a type of puzzle, known as a guessing or “market sizing” question, designed to see the logic a candidate uses to come up with an answer. An example of this type of question is “How many golf balls can a Boeing 747 hold?” Research on puzzles by Professor Highhouse and his co-authors did not distinguish between standard puzzles and ‘market sizing’ questions.

“We ask for analytical estimates in areas where people wouldn’t necessarily have basic knowledge, so they can demonstrate problem-solving skills,” the McKinsey spokesperson said.

“Puzzles should not be used”

“We also ask a series of questions that draw on candidates’ previous experience, as well as case studies that reflect the types of problems clients ask us to solve. There is also a focus on understanding their broader leadership skills, which are an important complement to problem solving to impact our clients.

“Our goal is to give all candidates the best possible opportunity to demonstrate the skills and characteristics that bring them to McKinsey. For this reason, there is a range of information and resources on our website to guide them through the process.

Other experts agreed that brain teasers should not be used because they confuse applicants and reveal no useful job-related information.

Consultant Peter Klugsberger, who has worked at consultancies McKinsey and Partners in Performance, said BCG’s sample question on the value of the ocean is upsetting to the candidate and provides no useful information to the candidate. interviewer.

“That question [about the ocean’s value] is more a matter of personality. This is called the “airport test” in council. “Am I ready to sit with this person in the living room for the next four hours?” said Mr. Klugsberger.

“Why I really don’t like these types of questions is that it puts people in a very negative emotional state because the expectation is that when they go to that interview they’ll get a rational question. based on data, not on each other.

“So they will feel unprepared. Their emotions will go on a roller coaster and they will feel stressed. It’s unintentional and their cognitive function will decline, and they’ll be more likely to fail the interview.

It’s unclear what information the puzzle questions were trying to uncover about a candidate, said Margot Faraci, chief executive of executive search firm Derwent.

Derwent Search managing director Margot Faraci says brain teasers don’t get useful information out of a candidate. Louise Kennerley

“I look at these questions and wonder what they are actually testing. I was asked these kinds of questions when I was more of a junior and I wasn’t sure what they were really asking me.

“So there could be a real power asymmetry at work here if you like asking puzzles,” Ms Faraci said.

“We are focused on recruiting the C-suite, so we don’t use puzzles. We are dealing with highly specialized and very experienced executives and we want to test their executive presence. It is to see if they can respond with credibility and seriousness. The further you go on the leadership journey, it all becomes a matter of judgment. Puzzles won’t test any of that.

Estimates, “market sizing”

Klugsberger, who consults on organizational change and development and building high-performing teams, also opposes the use of “market sizing” questions.

“The question of ‘market sizing’ tries to get an idea of ​​an approximation of the size of a thing. For example, “how do I know how many petrol stations there are in Sydney?”. Investigators want to see if you can think in a structured way and really be able to identify the relevant categories that need to be in play with this question,” he said.

“The idea is to show if you know the relevant data points that you would need to answer the question. Would you be able to find your way around them? I’m not a fan of them because my point of view is everything what i can google shouldn’t be asked during an interview.

Another example of these types of approximate questions was provided to Financial analysis following a request on the professional networking site LinkedIn.

One candidate for a financial modeler position at PwC was asked “How many planes are flying over Australia at the moment?”, and another person replied that he had been asked: “How many cars are crossing the Sydney Harbor every day? during an interview with Deutsche Bank.

PwC and Deutsche Bank declined to comment on their use of proxy questions.

As for the aspiring consultant, he has now moved on from his confusing experience to the BCG interviews. He said his answer to the question about the value of the ocean was that the ocean is priceless, which he tried to back up with anecdotal evidence.

Although he did not receive a job offer from BCG, he has now accepted a graduate position at a major bank.

Types of interview questions

  • Behavioral: A question about how the candidate has behaved in a specific situation in the past. It is based on the idea that past behavior is a good indication of future behavior. Example: “Tell me about a time you failed”
  • Puzzle: a question whose answer cannot be calculated. There is no peer review evidence that puzzles are useful for screening employees. Examples: “If you could put a price on the ocean, what would it be?” (BCG), “How would you determine the weight of a commercial airplane without a scale?” (McKinsey)
  • Case Study: Candidates are asked to describe how they would solve a fictional client project. Interviewers want to know the logic and calculations the candidate is using to make their recommendations. Used primarily by consulting firms.
  • Market estimation/sizing: A type of puzzle question where the interviewer is interested in the logic and structure used to find an answer rather than the specific answer. Used by consulting firms and investment banks. Examples: “How many planes are flying over Australia at the moment?” (PwC) and “How many cars cross the Sydney Harbor Bridge daily?” (German Bank)
  • Quirky Personality: A question designed to uncover information about a candidate while signaling that the organization has a “playful” culture. Researchers doubt that these types of questions reveal useful information about a candidate. Examples: “What animal are you?” (CBA) and “If someone gave you a brick, what’s the first thing you would think of doing with it?” (Investment bank)
  • Traditional: Designed to find out why the candidate wants the job and if they would be a good fit for the job. Examples: “Why do you want to work here?”, “Why should we hire you?” and “Are you a good listener?”
]]>
After the Roe v. Wade vote, access to contraception could be under scrutiny https://za4etka.com/2022/05/03/after-the-roe-v-wade-vote-access-to-contraception-could-be-under-scrutiny/ Tue, 03 May 2022 21:43:39 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/05/03/after-the-roe-v-wade-vote-access-to-contraception-could-be-under-scrutiny/

Last night Politico got a first draft majority opinion written by Justice Samuel Alito which revealed the Supreme Court would likely strike down Roe v Wade. If Alito’s view prevails, abortion will be immediately illegal in the 18 states that currently have full or near-total abortion bans already in effect. The wording of Alito’s opinion has some experts concerned that access to contraception may also be restricted in the future.

Previous debates on abortion rights have generally concerned the rights of the unborn fetus. Roe v. Wade granted American women the right to an abortion during the first two trimesters of pregnancy, with certain restrictions allowed during the second trimester. In Planned Parenthood v. Casey in 1992, the Court overturned this quarterly framework in favor of a viability analysis. In other words, restrictions on abortions could be applied if the fetus could survive outside the womb.

What is different in current opinion is that the debate no longer revolves around the rights of the fetus. Instead, Alito’s justification for overthrowing Roe stems from the fact that abortion is not mentioned in the Constitution. “The Constitution makes no reference to abortion, and no such right is implicitly protected by constitutional provision,” Alito writes. His argument is why some suggest the right to contraception could be next.

During the Rachel Maddow Show, constitutional scholar and congressman Jamie Raskin explained that Roe’s original decision was based on a 1965 Supreme Court case, Griswold v. Connecticut, which struck down a law banning birth control. In this case, the Supreme Court declared that individuals have a right to privacy over intimate decision-making.

“We know there’s a right-wing war on contraception now, but if Casey is going to fall, if Roe v. Wade is going to fall, then Griswold v. Connecticut, presumably, will also fall, because the word ‘contraception” or ‘birth control’ does not appear in the Constitution. Indeed, the phrase ‘right to privacy’ does not appear in the constitution. So this seems to be an invitation to have regulation and legislation against it. -Handmaid’s Tale-type feminists all over the country,” Raskin told Maddow.

Raskin isn’t the only one who believes access to birth control is in jeopardy, others are weighing in as well. Congresswoman Barbara Lee, in a tweet originally written on April 25 but retweeted after the Politico report, wrote “PSA: If Roe falls, your constitutional right to birth control will also be in jeopardy. It was never just about abortion. It is about controlling and criminalizing our bodies.

And on April 4, Colorado Gov. Jared Polis signed a bill Monday codifying abortion and birth control rights in the state. It seems unlikely that contraception would be included if the state were not prepared for the possibility that the United States Supreme Court could also strike down access to birth control.

Enabling women to access family planning is not just a family issue, it has implications for women’s careers and earnings. Harvard economists Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz assessed the impact of birth control on women’s careers. They write: “In 1960, 18.4% of professionals were women, as were 4.7% of ‘top professionals’. In 1998, 36.4% of professionals and 25.1% of the high-level subset were women. The researchers attribute much of this increase to women’s access to birth control pills. They argue that access to reliable contraception has enabled women to invest in their education and careers. They write: “The female to male ratio in professional programs began its rapid ascent in 1970, just as the first pill cohorts graduated from college. These economists say there is another factor that likely influenced these advances for women: access to abortion.

Another study found a direct link between access to contraception and a woman’s salary. Women who had access to legal contraception from age 18 to 21 earned 5% more per hour and 11% more per year by age 40. Again, the study authors suggest that having access to birth control such as the pill allows women to delay having children, which means they can invest more in their education and in choosing a profession.

We don’t know what the Court’s final opinion will look like, but if it looks like the leaked draft, it represents a major setback for women’s rights as well as the advancement of women in the workplace.

]]>
Censorship. What is happening? Dr. Ed Iannuccilli https://za4etka.com/2022/05/02/censorship-what-is-happening-dr-ed-iannuccilli/ Mon, 02 May 2022 06:26:11 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/05/02/censorship-what-is-happening-dr-ed-iannuccilli/

Monday 02 May 2022

View larger +

PICTURES: file

When I was a kid, the Legion of Decency, an organization dedicated to identifying objectionable content in motion pictures for Catholic audiences, stuck out (or so I thought) to me. They listed films banned because they were morally offensive. In our religious education classes, we were warned that we could suffer the consequences if we saw these films. I don’t remember the penalties, but as soon as the Legion banned a film, we ran to see it.

We devotees have been instructed to steer clear of objectionable content. But for us, it was the sexually explicit content we wanted to see; something racy enough to satisfy a teenager’s spicy appetite, so we set off, with minimal hesitation, down the trail of immorality.

I saw ‘The Moon is Blue’ and others, maybe ‘Outlaw’, that I don’t remember. Censored or not, we survived, uncorrupted. We considered these films as part of our education.

GET THE LATEST NEWS HERE – SIGN UP FOR GLOCAL’S FREE DAILY EBLAST

Now the censorship game has come up again, and I don’t know why. This time, deleting and restricting books is at the top of the list.

Here are some of the current (suggested) banned books I read in my youth: Huckleberry Finn, To Kill a Mockingbird, The Catcher in the Rye, The Great Gatsby, Grapes of Wrath. . . exceptional writing by exceptional authors. What if I hadn’t been able to read them? What if they weren’t in my library? I couldn’t imagine they weren’t there.

I was guided through these books by teachers who understood education, who understood freedom and the path to maturity. They understood the importance of freeing a student to engage in curious thought. Taking away intellectual freedom and affecting creativity was unacceptable. My teachers grasped the power of the mind; the only thing we purely and simply possess. I may have been stunned by James Joyce’s work, but I survived and was better educated for it.

What happens now? A Texas state legislator is targeting materials that “could cause students to experience discomfort, guilt, anguish, or other forms of psychological distress because of their race or gender.” He wants to remove books from libraries and classrooms if they address issues ranging from transgender identity to critical race theory. What? Repressive censorship? He must be kidding!

The values ​​of integrity, honesty, educational imperative and moral conscience are learned at home. It is the parents who should advise their children to improve their education, and to do so with the help of professional educators (disagreement and discussion acceptable), not to exaggerate politicians in search of political capital in a witch hunt.

Why Are Books About Sexuality, Racism, and American History Dreaded? I would ask those who promote censorship, “What are you afraid of? What are your problems? »

In 1933, Helen Keller wrote this sentence on censorship: “You may burn my books, but the ideas they contain have seeped through a million channels and will continue to stir other minds.”

Beware of those of you who try to retard the spirit of the young. It can backfire on you.

Dr. Ed Iannuccilli is the author of three popular memoirs, “Growing up Italian; Grandfather’s Fig Tree and Other Stories”, “What Happened to Sunday Dinner” and “My Story Continues: From Neighborhood to College”. NOW he has written his fourth book “A Whole Bunch of 500 Word Stories”.

LEARN MORE HERE

Like this article ? Share it with others.

]]>
City of Oakland | 187th Basic Recruit Academy Graduation https://za4etka.com/2022/04/29/city-of-oakland-187th-basic-recruit-academy-graduation/ Fri, 29 Apr 2022 23:57:00 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/04/29/city-of-oakland-187th-basic-recruit-academy-graduation/

For Immediate Release April 29, 2022

NEW OPDs:

187th Basic Recruit Academy Graduation

The Oakland Police Department (OPD) today welcomed 26 new officers to the OPD family, as members of the 187th Basic Recruit Academy graduated in a ceremony held at the Scottish Rite Center. “Trust is built through respectful engagement, consistent communication and listening to our community,” said Oakland Police Chief LeRonne L. Armstrong. “The foundation of our ministry is rooted in treating people procedurally fairly, with dignity and respect. You must hold yourself to high ethical standards on and off the job. »

“Today’s graduates are the authors of the next chapter in policing in Oakland and across America,” said Oakland Mayor Libby Schaaf. “I am personally grateful to each of our new Oakland police officers, as they are the ones who have raised their hands and stepped forward at this historic moment as our city moves forward to become a national model of policing. progressives and professionals.

The Academy’s 187th class is a diverse group with three women and 23 men; band members speak multiple languages ​​including Spanish, Korean, Arabic, and Tagalog. The valedictorian of the 187th Academy is Khalil Logan. The newly sworn officers are Ivan Rogelio Barajas, Robert Brown, James Hartman, Richard Filer, Alexander Garcia, Moaud Ghazi, Alondra, Gabrielle Hamilton, Trevor Harley, Alon Henner, Delonzo Jackson-Ellis, Paul Kim, Brandon Ko, Sherman Mitchell, Behzad Moeinimanesh, Frank Pan, Christian Paran, Sherman Pruitt II, Joel Reyes, Carlos Ronquillo, Griselda Santana, Carlos Santillan, Dalton Winn, Henry Woods, Jr., Jacob Zimmerman.

Six Alameda Police Department officers also graduated from OPD’s 187and Academy.

The graduates are a welcome addition to our Oakland family and represent another step forward in our efforts to grow the police department and increase public safety and confidence in the city of Oakland.

]]>
leadership conference focuses on ‘women lifting up women’ | News, Sports, Jobs https://za4etka.com/2022/04/28/leadership-conference-focuses-on-women-lifting-up-women-news-sports-jobs/ Thu, 28 Apr 2022 05:42:10 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/04/28/leadership-conference-focuses-on-women-lifting-up-women-news-sports-jobs/

MARSHALL – Showing leadership often means dealing with the unexpected and managing yourself and others. But organizers of the SMSU Foundation Women’s Leadership Conference say women can learn a lot from each other about growing and strengthening their skills.

“These are women who raise other women” said Stacy Frost, senior director of alumni relations and outreach at Southwest Minnesota State University. Area residents can register to attend the conference on Friday at SMSU.

This year’s program includes breakout sessions on developing leadership skills and tackling burnout, combined with inspirational speakers.

“We think it’s really something for women of all seasons to think about and plan for,” said Frost.

More information about the conference, as well as online registration, is available at www.smsufoundation.org/events/annual/womensleadershipconference/index.html.

The Women’s Leadership Conference is back in person this year, having hosted a virtual conference in 2021, Frost said. The organizers hope to have around 200 participants.

The original vision for the leadership conference came from Cindy Verschaetse about five years ago, organizers said. As a board member of the SMSU Foundation, Verschaetse was interested in raising scholarships for female student leaders, as well as providing opportunities for women to come together for their personal and professional development. The event created an endowment for female student leaders at SMSU.

Friday’s conference lineup includes keynote speaker Jo Saxton, an author and entrepreneurial coach with a multicultural approach to leadership training.

“She is spectacular. She really wants women at the table for the right reasons and to be heard,” said Frost.

There will also be breakout sessions with Rana DeBoer, Director of Impact for Keystone Group International, and SMSU alumni Karla Munkel and Charli Gamber. Both Munkel and Gamber are authors with a background in corporate leadership.

Frost said the three breakout sessions all covered topics that complement each other, ranging from fueling women’s energy to preventing burnout and surviving life’s curveballs.

The Women’s Leadership Conference is open to attendees of all ages, including college students, Frost said. SMSU students can attend the conference free of charge.



Today’s breaking news and more to your inbox






]]>
Preston Pickett’s ‘Only the Strong Survive’ is a powerful exploration of the author’s major life experiences https://za4etka.com/2022/04/26/preston-picketts-only-the-strong-survive-is-a-powerful-exploration-of-the-authors-major-life-experiences/ Tue, 26 Apr 2022 04:04:05 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/04/26/preston-picketts-only-the-strong-survive-is-a-powerful-exploration-of-the-authors-major-life-experiences/

“Only the Fittest Survive”: a powerful reminder that our choices will ultimately shape our lives. “Only the Strong Survive” is the creation of published author Preston Pickett, who grew up on the rough streets of North Philadelphia, lived through the murder of his beloved mother, and overcame drugs to find a life of success. in Atlanta, Georgia.

Pickett shares, “Preston Pickett co-authored Success Starts today with Jack Canfield; author of Best Selling Series-‘Chicken Soup for the Soul’.

“Preston has received letters from the United States Congress to help our homeless veterans who are suffering from PTSD. And has been personally recognized for his work with vets by local nonprofits in the area, such as the Veterans Group.

“Preston attended the main campus of Pennsylvania State University. His first year he was president of MECA (multiethnic cultural association) and received an award from the Pennsylvania Conference on Higher Education, was secretary of SGA, member of PSU power cougar club, member of Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity Inc., recipient of the award for outstanding boxer at the Penn State Boxing Open tournament, student of the month from Orleans Tech and 1st place winner from the Community Advocates for Children and Youth team at their golf fundraising tournament . Who’s Who named Mr. Pickett as someone to watch.

“Delta Theta Alumni awarded Mr. Pickett a Custom Only Fraternity jacket for helping the organization purchase a Fraternity home for younger brothers and donated $120,000 to the cause and served on the committee…’C’ is someone who has helped young college students to succeed and support the cause.’

“Preston volunteered at Super Bowl LIII in Atlanta and received the top team member badge for his fun personality and effort to make everyone laugh and enjoy the experience.

“Preston spoke at Light of the World Christian Academy in Atlanta to young people and left the children with a mission. To change the narrative. Preston was also a member of the Dicks & Nanton Celebrity Branding Agency. Before the pandemic, he was asked to join the promotional tour in New York’s Times Square and be interviewed by ABC, CBS, NBC, WSJ, USA Today and FOX News.

“Preston grew up on welfare in the Abbotsford Projects of North Philadelphia, where he watched those around him murdered and imprisoned. Mr. Pickett moved to southwest Philadelphia where his mother was murdered due to a burglary.After going to live with his father in Norristown.College became his only way out;he took advantage of his opportunity there which changed his life forever. He was president of MECA, a student organization, Penn State Boxing Team and joined a fraternity among other things that involved leadership.

“He started his first business out of college flipping houses. After helping the Alumni secure a Fellowship House. Things took off and he quickly became the vice president of a HomeVestor franchise. After closing over 100 deals and weathering the Great Recession of 2005, Mr. Pickett lost everything and went bankrupt. But God had a plan for his life. He packed up and moved to Atlanta, got a fresh start. As a professional speaker and author, Mr. Pickett has picked himself up from being knocked down, learned some hard lessons and now has purpose and earned his stride. Founder of 3P Legacy Partners Inc. Mr. Pickett enjoys giving money to Motherless Students, a non-profit organization here in Atlanta and giving back as much wisdom as possible to the next generation.

“For fun, Preston likes to travel, go to the beach, listen to music and read magazines.”

Published by Christian Faith Publishing, Preston Pickett’s new book is a personal and thoughtful exploration of life’s ups and downs.

Pickett offers readers a front row seat through moments of grief and celebration as he discusses the varied path that led to a life of peace and success.

Consumers can purchase “Only the Strong Survive” at traditional bookstores, or online at Amazon.com, Apple iTunes Store or Barnes and Noble.

For more information or inquiries about “Only the Strong Survive,” contact Christian Faith Publishing’s media department at 866-554-0919.

Share the article on social networks or by e-mail:

]]>
Perceptions and Attitude of Women in Luderitz, Namibia on Pap Test and Cervical Cancer Prevention | BMC Women’s Health https://za4etka.com/2022/04/21/perceptions-and-attitude-of-women-in-luderitz-namibia-on-pap-test-and-cervical-cancer-prevention-bmc-womens-health/ Thu, 21 Apr 2022 21:28:35 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/04/21/perceptions-and-attitude-of-women-in-luderitz-namibia-on-pap-test-and-cervical-cancer-prevention-bmc-womens-health/

Sociodemographic variables and participants’ perception of the Pap test.

A total of 136 female volunteers were selected to take part in the study. The majority (28.7%) of them belonged to the age group of 41 to 60, with Christianity (97.8%) being the predominant religion (Table 1). Nearly a third of the sample, n=48 (35.3%) had an upper secondary level of education, while intermediate and higher education amounted to 29.4% and 28.7% respectively . Only one individual declared having completed primary education (0.7%). Most women were single n=98 (72.1%), while n=34 (25%) are married. Of the 136 participants, 32 (23.5%) had no children, 32 (23.5%) had 1 child, 70 (51.5%) had 2 to 5 children and 2 (1.4 %) have more than 5 children. The majority of the 119 participants (87.5%) were employed while 13 (9.6%) of the participants were unemployed.

Table 1 Sociodemographic variables of participants n = 136

According to Table 2, all women between the ages of 36 and 60 have heard of cervical cancer and the Pap test. Although only 81% of women in the 31-35 age group said they had heard of cervical cancer, 84% said they had heard of the Pap test. This suggests that there are women who are aware of the Pap test but not aware of cervical cancer. Of 24 women aged ’21-25′, n=23 (96%) of them said they had heard of cervical cancer and Pap smear.

Table 2 Proportion of women in Luderitz who have heard of the Pap test by age group

Cervical cancer perception, risk factors and prevention methods

A large proportion of women reported having heard of cervical cancer (92.6%) and the Pap test (93.4%) (Table 3). However, when asked what the Pap test was used for, various answers were chosen. Most agree it is to screen for cervical cancer n=111 (87.4%). Other answers were; treatment of sexually transmitted diseases n=6 (4.7%), infertility screening n=6 (4.7%), uterine cleansing n=9 (7.1%) and bladder cancer n = 1 (0.8%) (Table 4).

Table 3 Perception of cervical cancer, Pap test, risk factors and prevention among women
Table 4 Pap test participation among participants by age group n=63

When participants were asked to indicate two factors that carry the greatest risk of developing cervical cancer. About a third gave only one answer n = 45 (35.7%). Those who gave sufficient responses (two responses) included 109 women (86.5%). Those who mentioned one of the two correct answers were 59 women (46.8%). Only n = 10 (7.9%) participants correctly identified that having a compromised immune system caused by HIV and being infected with HPV are the highest risk factors for developing cervical cancer ( table 4). Frequently cited risk factors were; having multiple sex partners n=50 (39.7%), early sexual debut n=44 (34.9%), smoking n=22 (17.5%), and long-term oral contraceptive use n=20 (15 .9%). Other risk factors included alcohol consumption (0.8%), dirty toilets (1.6%), lack of regular screening (0.8%), microwaved food (0.8 %), soap (1.6%), spicy foods (0.8%), unprotected sex (0.8%), genetics (0.8%), high blood pressure (0.8%) , lotions (0.8%), plastics (0.8%). Irregular menstruation (0.8%) has been reported as a risk factor, when in fact it is a symptom of carcinoma of the cervix.

When asked if they thought they were at risk of developing cervical cancer. More than half said they were at risk of developing cervical cancer n=72 (52.9%), while n=54 (39.7%) thought they were not. Others said they did not know if they were at risk n = 10 (7.4%) (Table 3).

About three-quarters of the n=94 sample (74.6%) reported regular screening as a preventive measure. Almost half n=61 (48.4%) said cervical cancer can be prevented by avoiding multiple sex partners, avoiding early first sex n=32 (25.4%) and quitting smoking n = 33 (26.2%). Only n = 21 (16.7%) reported having been vaccinated against HPV. A smaller proportion reported not using soap to wash the vagina (1.6%) and using clean toilets (1.6%) as cervical cancer prevention measures (Table 4). No one could name all the preventive measures for cervical cancer.

Greater proportion said cervical carcinoma can be treated n=107 (84.9%), n=14 (11.1%) said there was no treatment and n = 5 (4.0%) did not know if treatment was available (Table 3).

Table 4 indicates that of the total number of participants who took part in the study n=136, less than half were screened n=63 (46.3%), the majority of whom were women between the ages of 36 and 40 years (71%), followed by age group 41-60 years. Of the n = 24 women aged 21-25, only 6 got tested (25%).

According to Table 3 illustrated below, the reasons for their screening were mainly due to the recommendation of a doctor (29%), the desire to be informed of their state of health/well-being (24%) and knowing someone who had already been tested (21%). Others were screened as part of prenatal (2%) and postnatal (3%) procedures. Some women reported having worrying symptoms that led them to get tested (13%).

According to Table 5, most women were screened more than twice n = 28 (46.3%). When asked where they got their information about the test, the majority said they were told by their healthcare workers n=22 (36%), followed by relatives/friends n= 11 (18%). Others said Leaflets n=10 (16%), Posters n=6 (10%). Only n=1 (2%) said school was their source of information.

Table 5 Motivation, frequency of screening among women n = 63

Attitudes of participating women on cervical cancer and the Pap test

According to Table 6, the majority n = 84 (67%) of respondents strongly agree that if testing is free, they will do it. Again, the majority strongly agreed that cervical cancer is a serious disease n=95 (76%). And finally, a larger portion strongly agreed that they would be screening in the near future. Conversely, n = 6 (5%) neither agree nor disagree when asked about screening in the future.

Table 6 Attitudes toward cervical cancer and screening among participants aware of cervical cancer n=125

Factors associated with Pap smear use

Sociodemographic variables associated with the use of screening

From Table 7 above (using Pearson’s chi-square test), one can observe the presence of relationships between age and Pap smear screening as well as between participants’ residency eras and Pap smear screening. .

Table 7 Relationship between categorical variables
]]>
Study: Extrapolation of drug indications from FDA study populations is ‘common’ https://za4etka.com/2022/04/19/study-extrapolation-of-drug-indications-from-fda-study-populations-is-common/ Tue, 19 Apr 2022 20:59:01 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/04/19/study-extrapolation-of-drug-indications-from-fda-study-populations-is-common/

Posted on April 19, 2022 | By Jeff Craven

According to a recent survey published in Open JAMA Network.

Between 2015 and 2017, the FDA extrapolated the indications of a total of 21 drugs 23 times, Daniel Feldman, Program on Regulation, Therapeutics, and Law, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School in Boston, and his colleagues said. Although the practice is known, it was not clear until now how often the FDA uses it, the authors noted.

“Extrapolation of a drug’s indications beyond the information available from the pivotal trials on which the approval was based is often necessary in the approval of new drugs because pre-approval trials cannot cover all patient subpopulations, age categories, and comorbidities,” Feldman and colleagues wrote. “However, the extrapolation of clinically limited data to generate broad official indications can sometimes exceed the limits of what is plausible given the characteristics of the patients studied in pre-approval trials, potentially influencing efficacy and safety. of the drug when used in routine practice.”

The authors compared differences between patients enrolled in pivotal trials and FDA indications for these drugs in 105 drugs that met inclusion criteria and were approved between 2015 and 2017. Investigators reviewed the basis of extrapolation, frequency with which it occurred, disease category and whether patients were taking concomitant medications.

A total of 23 extrapolations occurred in 21 of 105 FDA new drug approvals (20%) between 2015 and 2017, with the FDA using extrapolation 12 times in 2015 (29%), 3 times in 2016 (15 %) and 6 times in 2017 (14%). The most common reason for extrapolation was disease severity for 14 drugs, disease subtype for 6 drugs, and concurrent drug use for 3 drugs.

“While such extrapolation may be warranted at the time of regulatory approval, our results also underscore the importance of follow-up research to confirm expected results. It may be beneficial to incorporate formal post-approval monitoring, using both prospective trials and well-conducted observational studies, in the deployment of new therapies for which such extrapolation has occurred to ensure better determination of real-world efficacy and safety,” the researchers said. wrote. “Where such clinical extrapolation is required at the time of approval, its details should be clearly stated in the labeled indications for physicians and patients. Until then, it would be helpful for physicians to acknowledge that the indication approved by the FDA alone may constitute insufficient information to decide whether a given drug will benefit a patient which may differ significantly from those studied in the clinical trials on which the approval was based.”

In a guest comment, Reshma Ramachandran, MD, MPP; and Joseph S. Ross, MD, MHS, of Yale University School of Medicine, said the survey was timely given the recent FDA approval of aducanumab as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease for patients with mild cognitive impairment, a situation where the FDA used extrapolation without evidence. of clinical benefit (RELATED: FDA approves use of aducanumab in Alzheimer’s disease, Regulatory guidance June 07, 2021).

Another example of FDA extrapolation is when the agency approved sacubitril with valsartan for chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but the pivotal clinical trial enrolled heart failure patients. less severe cardiac. The comment’s authors said that while extrapolation is clinically appropriate in some scenarios, when it occurs without a clear clinical rationale, it can “lead to confusion, as happened when professional cardiovascular societies initially recommended the use of sacubitril with valsartan only for patients with Class II. and Heart Failure III, despite broader FDA approval.

These decisions then affect downstream stakeholders, such as patients and payers, who are “faced with the question of whether to pay or reimburse the cost of drugs with expanded indications for use, or only for patients similar to those tested in the pivotal trials”. they said.

Some degree of flexibility is needed for the FDA to expand the indication of approved drugs, Ramachandran and Ross noted, but “the rationale must be clear to patients and clinicians and be scientifically substantiated.”

“When such extrapolations are not clinically warranted,” they said, “FDA should use additional safeguards to ensure alignment between indication approvals and pivotal trial populations to reduce clinical uncertainty. and to ensure that patients are prescribed safe and effective treatments.”

Study

Editorial

© 2022 Society of Regulatory Affairs Professionals.


]]>
About 1 in 4 adults have an often missed liver https://za4etka.com/2022/04/15/about-1-in-4-adults-have-an-often-missed-liver/ Fri, 15 Apr 2022 02:00:56 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/04/15/about-1-in-4-adults-have-an-often-missed-liver/

Embargoed until 4 a.m..m. CT / 5 a.m. ET Thursday, April 14, 2022

DALLAS, April 14, 2022 — About one in four adults worldwide are estimated to have liver disease which is a risk factor for heart disease, according to a new scientific statement from the American Heart Association released today. in the Association’s peer-reviewed journal. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis and vascular biology. The disease, called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), occurs when abnormally large amounts of fat build up in the liver, sometimes leading to inflammation and scarring. The prevalence of NAFLD is an estimate, taking into account the difficulties in diagnosing the disease, which are detailed in the statement.

A scientific statement from the American Heart Association is an expert analysis of current research and may inform future guidelines. Professional gastroenterology organizations have previously issued statements about the disease, however, they focus on liver toxicity (including scarring, cirrhosis, and liver cancer) rather than heart disease risk. This is the Association’s first statement on NAFLD.

“Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common condition that is often hidden or missed in routine medical care. Knowing about the disease and treating it early is important because it is a risk factor for chronic liver injury and cardiovascular disease,” said P. Barton Duell, MD, FAHA, Editorial Board Chair of the declaration and professor of medicine at the Knight. Cardiovascular Institute and Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Clinical Nutrition at Oregon Health and Science University in Portland, Oregon.

There are two types of NAFLD: one when only fat is present in the liver (called non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), and the other when inflammation and scarring are also present (called non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH). . Excessive alcohol consumption can cause similar fat deposition and liver dysfunction, so the term NAFLD is used to differentiate disease caused by excessive alcohol consumption from disease without alcohol as the underlying cause.

NAFLD can go undiagnosed for years, so the statement emphasizes the need for awareness and surveillance for NAFLD, access to improved screening tools and treatment, and highlights highlighted lifestyle changes to help prevent and treat the disorder.

NAFLD increases the risk of heart disease

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for people with NAFLD. The diseases share many of the same risk factors, including metabolic syndrome (high blood sugar and triglycerides, increased abdominal fat, and high blood pressure); Type 2 diabetes; impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes); and obesity. However, people with NAFLD are at a higher risk of heart disease than people who have the same risk factors for heart disease without liver disease.

NAFLD can sometimes be prevented

NAFLD is often preventable by maintaining a healthy body weight, exercising regularly, eating a heart-healthy diet, and managing conditions such as type 2 diabetes and high triglyceride levels (a type of fat) in the blood. Genetic factors also play a role in whether a person develops NAFLD and whether it leads to NASH, cirrhosis, or liver cancer.

“Although healthy living can help many people avoid NAFLD, some can develop NAFLD despite their best efforts,” Duell said. “At the other end of the spectrum, some people may have a genetic makeup that protects them from developing NAFLD despite obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, poor dietary habits, or physical inactivity.”

NAFLD can go undiagnosed for years

Most people with NAFLD go undiagnosed, creating a barrier to optimal medical management, the statement said. The initial stages of NAFLD usually have no symptoms and people feel fine, and routine blood tests may not show liver abnormalities. Often, elevated liver enzymes in the blood, a possible sign of NAFLD, can be mistakenly attributed to a side effect of medications or recent alcohol consumption. Also, the absence of elevated liver enzyme levels does not rule out NAFLD or NASH.

According to the statement, a specialized ultrasound that measures liver elasticity, fat and stiffness (resulting from scarring) in the liver can detect NAFLD. This type of liver scan is a noninvasive way to help diagnose and monitor treatment for NAFLD and NASH, but it is underused. Liver biopsy is the definitive test for diagnosis of more advanced stages of NAFLD, however, it is invasive and expensive.

“Lack of awareness of the high prevalence of NAFLD contributes to underdiagnosis,” Duell said. “People with risk factors for NAFLD warrant more careful screening.”

If diagnosed in time, liver damage can be reversible

“Some of the good news about managing NAFLD is that healthy eating, regular exercise, and weight loss or prevention of weight gain are all valuable interventions for improving the health of most people. between us whether or not we have NAFLD,” Duell said.

Lifestyle changes are the cornerstone of treatment for early NAFLD. Dietary recommendations include reducing fat intake, limiting consumption of simple sugars, and choosing vegetables and whole grains that are higher in fiber. A Mediterranean-style diet is the only specific diet recommended by a consortium of professional groups for the treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Avoidance of alcohol is encouraged because even light alcohol consumption can worsen NAFLD and interfere with the healing ability of the liver.

Consulting a dietitian can help people with NAFLD plan and maintain a healthy diet and lose weight, if needed. The statement cites research showing that losing 10% of body weight significantly reduces liver fat and improves fibrosis, with lower levels of improvement with at least 5% body weight loss. Research also supports 20-30 minutes of physical activity daily to reduce liver fat and improve insulin sensitivity even in the absence of weight loss.

Medication may be needed to treat type 2 diabetes, lower cholesterol, or reduce weight. Bariatric surgery may be appropriate for some people because the resulting marked weight loss can be an effective intervention for NAFLD. Optimal care may also involve seeing a lipid specialist, endocrinologist, or gastroenterologist.

This scientific statement was prepared by the volunteer writing group on behalf of the American Heart Association Council on Atherosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology; the Hypertension Council; the Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Diseases; the Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; and the Peripheral Vascular Disease Council. Scientific statements from the American Heart Association promote greater awareness of cardiovascular disease and stroke and help facilitate informed healthcare decisions. Scientific statements describe what is currently known about a subject and areas that require further research. Although scientific statements can inform the development of guidelines, they do not make treatment recommendations. The American Heart Association guidelines provide the Association’s official clinical practice recommendations.

Co-authors are Vice President Francine Welty, MD; Michael Miller, MD; Alan Chait, MD; Gmerice Hammond, MD, MPH; Zahid Ahmad, MD; David E. Cohen, MD, Ph.D.; Jay D. Horton, MD; Gregg S. Pressman, MD; Peter P. Toth, MD, Ph.D. The authors’ disclosures are listed in the manuscript.

The Association receives funds primarily from individuals. Foundations and corporations (including pharmaceutical companies, device manufacturers, and other businesses) also donate and fund Association-specific programs and events. The Association has strict policies to prevent these relationships from influencing scholarly content. Revenues for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, device manufacturers, and health insurance providers, as well as the Association’s aggregate financial information are available here.

Additional Resources:

About the American Heart Association

The American Heart Association is an unrelenting force for a world of longer, healthier lives. We are committed to equitable health in all communities. Through collaboration with many organizations and millions of volunteers, we fund innovative research, advocate for public health and share vital resources. The Dallas-based organization has been a leading source of health information for nearly a century. Join us on heart.org, Facebook, Twitter or by calling 1-800-AHA-USA1.

###


]]>
Wolf Pack Wellness Week | Human ressources https://za4etka.com/2022/04/12/wolf-pack-wellness-week-human-ressources/ Tue, 12 Apr 2022 15:33:24 +0000 https://za4etka.com/2022/04/12/wolf-pack-wellness-week-human-ressources/

The Notebooks of Paradise

Register for Session 25 (Eventbrite)

6:30-8:30 p.m. Wells Fargo Auditorium Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center

Join University Libraries and the Nevada Writers Hall of Fame for this very special Earth Day celebration as authors Steven Nightingale and Richard Nevle take the stage inside Wells Fargo Auditorium at the Mathewson-IGT Knowledge Center.

Their new book, The Paradise Notebooks, is a collection of writings inspired by their 90-mile trek through the Sierra Nevada. Steven and Richard will share readings from the book as well as stories from their adventure. Singer-songwriter Deborah Levoy will also be on the program, sharing her nature-inspired folk music.

After the program, join us for a reception in the adjacent Whittemore Gallery with light snacks, book sales and author signings. Reno’s sprawling bookstore, Sundance Books & Music, will be selling The Paradise Notebooks at the event. You can also pre-order the book and pick it up at the event (see link and instructions below).

About “The Notebooks of Paradise”: In The Paradise Notebooks, Richard J. Nevle and Steven Nightingale take us through the spectacular Sierra Nevada mountain range on a journey illuminated by incandescent poetry and fascinating facts. Over twenty-one pairs of short essays, Nevle and Nightingale contemplate the natural phenomena of the Sierra Nevada. From granite, to aspen, to fire, to a rare and endemic species of butterfly, these paired essays explore the natural history and mystical wonders of each element with a balanced and captivating twist. As they weave vignettes of their ninety-mile backpacking journey through the range, Nevle and Nightingale powerfully reimagine the Sierra Nevada as earthly matter and transcendental offering, letting us into a reality in which the nature has as much spiritual importance as physical. . In a time of rapid environmental degradation, The Paradise Notebooks offers a way forward – a total, learned and loving attention to place that rekindles our joyful relationship with the living world.

]]>